Cultivation of amaranth green mass

Cultivation of amaranth green mass

The article gives methodical recommendations on the use of amaranth for feed purposes. Advantages and disadvantages are described when growing amaranth for green mass and silage, recommendations for feeding animals are given, experience of using amaranth as a forage crop is described.


One of the ways to improve the quality of feed is to introduce new non-traditional fodder crops, such as amaranth, into the animal nutrition diet, with high nutritional value. The use of amaranth in feeds makes the feeding of animals and birds more complete and balanced by amino acid composition. With a huge deficit of fodder protein and vitamins in livestock, amaranth is very important as a high-protein forage crop. A great advantage of amaranth in front of fodder crops is high biological productivity. The yield of green mass exceeds by 20-40% the productivity of traditional silage crop - maize and averages 1000-2000 c / ha. During the vegetation period, the amount of protein in the amaranth mass is 1.8 times, and that of lysine - 3 times that of corn. According to the amino acid balance, the protein of amaranth leaves is one of the best for animals, especially for pigs. The culture is very drought-resistant, the need for water is 2-2.5 times less than in legumes and cereals. Transpiration coefficient - 250, sorghum - 300, corn -330, wheat - 515.


Cultivation of amaranth on green mass

Amaranth - an annual, tall (150-300 cm) plant with a fleshy stem. The leaves are large, oval from above pointed. The green mass is 40-60% composed of leaves, 30-35% of stems and 18-28% of inflorescences. In the green mass of amaranth, depending on the phase of development contains: 18-25% of dry matter, 3.0-3.9% of crude protein, 0.5-0.65% of fat, 3.9-5.45% of fiber, 0 , 46-0.535% calcium, 0.004-0.055% phosphorus, 40 mg carotene. In terms of absolutely dry weight: crude protein 15.6-16.75%, fat 2.4-2.8%, fiber 16, -21.7%, calcium 2.1-2.6%, phosphorus 0.2-0.21%, carotene 160-200 mg. For comparison, the green mass of corn in the phase of milk-wax ripeness of grain contains 7.5-8% protein, which is 2 times less than in amaranth. The content of amino acids in 1 kg of dry matter of the vegetative mass varies from 81.5 g. Up to 148.0 grams, and the amaranth protein is characterized by a high content of essential amino acids. In 1 kg of dry matter of the vegetative mass, lysine is 7.1-7.15 g, and in corn - 2.8 g, that is 2.4 times less. According to the amino acid balance, the protein of amaranth leaves for pigs is close to ideal. Amaranth is positively characterized as a fodder crop: a low fiber content of 16-20%, a concentration of water-soluble sugars of 6.4-7.2%, and pectin 9.5-11.3% on a dry basis. Amaranth can be grown on a green mass as a component of pasture. The green mass is well eaten by pigs from the stalking phase to flowering. In traditional green food for pigs - alfalfa and clover contains about 4% protein, and fiber 5-7% and due to rapid roughening, eating in a week after the start of use is reduced by half, and in the amaranth the protein content is not inferior to alfalfa - 4% And only 2-3% of fiber, that is, 2 times less. Pigs prefer amaranth to any other green food, including alfalfa. Incorporation of green mass of amaranth into diets of 2-4 month old piglets, repair guinea pigs, idlers, pigs and sows increased their productivity by 12-18%. At the same time, the cost of feed for the production of a unit of production is reduced by the same amount. However, it should be noted that when using fertilizers in the green mass of amaranth can accumulate nitrates, as well as salts of oxalic acid. Therefore, it is necessary to limit free access to eating food and limit the percentage of amaranth feed according to the norms of age groups.


Cultivation of amaranth for silage

As a result of numerous studies of the quality of amaranth, maize-amaranth silage, it has been established that amaranth-corn silage in the 1: 1 ratio is the best quality indicator. Laying the corn in a mixture with amaranth increased the yield of the digested protein by 1 hectare by 93.3% compared to the pure maize crop. In comparison with corn, amaranth silage contains more crude protein in 1.65 times, lysine in 2.4, calcium in 1.8, phosphorus in 1.32 times. Fiber is larger in the corn silage 1.08 times. In silage from a mixture of maize and amaranth (1: 1), in comparison with corn silage, the amount of crude protein increases by 1.32 times.

Use of amaranth silos for feeding cattle

When silage of maize with amaranth in the budding phase at a ratio of 1: 1, the protein nutrient content of one fodder unit of the finished silage is increased by 50% compared to silage from one corn. Below are the data on feeding dairy cows in the Kulaevsky state farm of the Pestrechinsky district of the Republic of Tatarstan. Feeding of corn-amaranth silage against the background of the feeding adopted in the farm had a positive effect on milk productivity and fat content of milk. During the experiment, the average daily yield of cows of the experimental group increased by 6%, and the fat content of milk increased by 0.1%. The increase in the productivity of cows in terms of 4% milk was 8.6%. The use of corn-amaranth silage in the ration allowed to reduce the feed consumption for milk production. Thus, for 1 kg of natural milk, less feed units are used by 8.8% and digested protein by 5.7%. Consequently, corn-amaranth silage has a positive effect on the milk productivity of cows and reduces the cost of milk production. During the experiment, no reliable changes in the chemical composition of natural milk between feed groups have been established. Hematologic studies have shown that changes in the total protein content in the blood serum were minor. There were also no significant differences between feed groups in the content of calcium, phosphorus, sugar, carotene, and the level of reserve alkali.


The use of amaranth for feeding pigs

In numerous experiments on feeding pigs with green mass, silage and herbal granules of amaranth, the high efficiency of using these feeds has been established. So in the researches of Karaev A.Kh., conducted in North Ossetia, data are given that the use of amaranth in the rations of sows and guinea pigs contributed to:

  • Increase in the multiplicity of sows by 14.2%;
  • Loss of live weight of lactating sows by 71%;
  • Greater "milkiness" of sows by 23.5%;
  • Better preservation of piglets under uterus by 2.7%;
  • The best growth of piglets-suckers by 8.3%;
  • An increase in the intensive growth of repair guinea pigs by 11.1%;
  • Reduction of costs per 1 piglet forage units by 5.0%, per 1 kg gain in live weight of guinea pigs by 5.9% of feed units.

It is established that amaranth-corn silage can replace up to 20% of concentrated fodder in rations of repair gilts without reducing their productivity.


Conclusion:

Thus, in conditions of deficiency of a biologically complete protein in rations of pigs, poultry and cattle it is expedient to use non-traditional protein fodder culture of amaranth.

01/09/2021 13:50:39
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